Students enter instruction with tightly held misconceptions. If we ignore students’ prior ideas we make dangerous assumptions about how students learn. Instead, we must first encourage students to be dissatisfied with their current ideas. Only once students see the flaw in their current thinking will they be willing to deeply entertain new ideas (rather than simply memorizing what teachers want to hear).
Once students are dissatisfied with their naive ideas, the new ideas must be or appear to be: 1) understandable/intelligible, 2) possible/plausible, and 3) fruitful/useful. If students cannot understand the new idea, they will not be able to accept the idea faithfully. If students do not find the new conception to be possible, they will not even entertain the idea. If the idea does not address the issues their original idea could not, they will likely not find the idea to be of value.
An example might be with moon phases. Many students believe clouds cause moon phases. To create dissatisfaction we might have students observe a crescent moon on a clear night. Then to help students understand the new idea, we might have them model the accurate motion using a light bulb and a ball of some sort. Then to demonstrate plausibility and utility students could be asked to demonstrate each of the moon phases using the new model. Of course, what this looks like in the classroom would be much more involved.
Reference: Posner, G.J.; Strike, K.A.; Hewson, P.W. & Gertzog, W.A. (1982). Accommodation of a Scientific Conception: Toward a Theory of Conceptual Change, Science Education 66(2), 211-227.